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THE THREEFOLD BEING MADE
You realise you were made,
that your salvation is given in Christ for ever ?
then you are MADE!
Then for You the Way of God is wonderful
in Reason, in Life, in Grandeur, Meaning and Marvels Unspeakable
You say that print type should not be changed as it is above. But don't you see ? It is symbolic. It is to suggest that there are different folds in type-face which can be used synthetically, in composition, in one dissertation, their variety a tonic, their relationship a message.
WHAT TONIC, WHAT MESSAGE ? you may well ask. It is this. Mao in the midst of his millions of murders, talked of a hundred flowers, with an appearance of toleration which unfortunately did not flower. His flowers were all red and the red was blood, and that is not a good floral arrangement. After a while, it stinks, literally.
It is far better, this variety, when understood in Christ, than mere diversity. It is diversity in synthesis, that grand, old team concept, but in a fashion where the very spirit of things is one, not in submergence of vital individualities, but in their fulfilment.
This can be achieved only when the oneness is the TRUTH, when full justice is given to the glory of God, His power and presence and participation and wisdom and directive grace, so that not merely law and order but understanding and liberty are all achieved. Love is like that. It SAVOURS difference and APPRECIATES variety, but does not appreciate at all variability from the word, wisdom and way of the Maker of man, God Himself.
Because England once had a fair measure of such things - though of course there were many great blemishes - she rose to amazing power for the little island off the coast of France, that her enemies might conceive her to be. Rather, France and Europe itself were a body of nations off the coast of England. Her dominion was immense, her inculcation of virtues in many ways, was admirable, and many of the things deemed to relate to democracy have come from just such national movements, as later seen in the USA, when it is deeply immersed in the kingdom of heaven, even if only perhaps 40% or much less!
Freedom with understanding of what man is and how and why he has been made, this is one thing; liberty without love, and independence without first achieving the aligning dependence, this is as amorphous as sulphur, as base as stalagmites and as trivial as persiflage. It is where freedom was indeed found because it was based where it can operate, in the God of creation, not in the lustful ambitions of man, trying to become what he manifestly is not, the god of his own creation, that it came to have a beautiful meaning.
Then statesmen may be Christians, and medical researchers, scientists, thinkers in great measure, and a whole culture of admirable action may begin to emerge. Then black sheep are seen as those contravening righteousness, morality (that which the Maker directs, in His word, the Bible), who wander, stray from the norm of greatness and the ways of truth. It would be ludicrous in such a setting, to imagine then that sexual perversion must not be acknowledged as such, in politics or in church. Now however, there is a reversal, a search not for God, but for man. Evil is being called good, and good evil, so that in many places, the very statement of moral truth is becoming a crime! When a nation does this, as Isaiah 5 shows, it is abominable to the Lord.
It is precisely like saying that a fountain pen not only should not be used as a mini-spade for gardening, but that all who criticise this use are criminal! It makes Alice in Wonderland seem too sober!
Consider again how grand the USA became - again despite many great blemishes, how strong the labours, how inventive the originators, how fast the development, how innovative the programs, how flourishing the might as she went through her first religious stresses on purity, Puritanism and liberty.
To be sure there was always a canker. The love of liberty began in time and proceeded more and more to have extreme collision with the love of God; yet for long, there were masses of people of vast influence who saw how the former springs from the latter, and that it is merely illusion which wants autonomy, which drags*1 the proud to their inveterate humiliations, because it is not true. Culture imbibed it, and manners expressed it in countless lives. Now however liberty is loved, without its source, and man as centre becomes as much a ruffian with reality upbraiding him continually, as many of the brigands of old. What he steals, is himself; and what he loses in the process, it is his place, his grace, his point, his purpose and his strength. This is the fundamental reason why America is weakening, and becoming a giant at a loss.
It is precisely this which now purges America. Freedom is becoming a goddess, not only a Statue of Liberty, and her ways have repeatedly been set above what, being just and true, grants that freedom which is not illusion, but rather adventurous dynamism within reality, thrust within salvation, and joy in the Lord.
Without this combination of truth, where love with it may shine because it
condones no substitute for reality, its very heart teaming in alliance with
without this atmosphere where appreciation and individuality are not submerged
without this composition with grace where force is despised as a modus
without the power and the presence of God the Creator in
the midst of a people,
Specious are the pretences; awful are the results. Many are the offers whether for national greatness from Hitler, or social harmony from the mass murderer, Stalin; or for pleasure where democracy is mistaken for indulgence.
Unique is the one thing needed, the power, the purpose and the purity of God: so that liberty becomes harmonious because harmonised in holiness, and its ways are taught in the righteousness of the Designer. Without that very redemption which brings man back from the rebellious abortion of spirit found from the first, after that blessed birth of mankind, that restores him, that brings integrity to life and grace to growth: without all of this, there is no solution for man.
It beckons, the love; it seeks, the kindness; it roves, the pity; it seeks to help, the constructiveness: but it is thwarted, aborted, dispersed. It is subordinated by the requirements asserted for survival, for autonomy, for the passionate if threadbare network of over-wrought nerves, necessities of the misaligned, like so many tanks askew on their tracks, burning in successive break-downs in the unremitting heat in the unforgiving heart of the trackless voids of the desert.
It seeks, the truth, and sometimes it is sought; but it likewise is plunged into the pit in the interests if not of power-broking internationally, then privately, as principles and desires seek to merge into the horizon of truth and peace, and find no rest. Man is degrading himself, and cannot then make the grade, for then he never graduates from meaningless gyrations to massive wisdom such as his astonishing creation requires for its operation.
When however the truth rules, then peace is natural, and adjustments are not malign, but benign, growth is not cancerous, but kindly.
Nor is it in spiritual correlations of mankind alone. Biblical Christian Theism as we have repeatedly seen in SMR, TMR and allied works, is not limited to being the solely rational outcome*2, the necessity if you follow reason and avoid the antithesis of disallowing it while seeking simultaneously to use it. It is no less the only valid outcome*2, for it towers in supremacy over what is based on what CANNOT house the truth, because it avoids it or dismisses it or makes it non-available, or contradicts what is necessary to it, and is invalid at the outset. Further, even what is not so deprived, is yet no better when it does not have reason to support it evidentially, verification to confirm it practically, principles to meet the demands of reason, or liberty to make its use rational, whether in religious procedure or in model type. It is far worse and wizened where it is so depraved as to contradict what is required for its very possibility, or produces the entire opposite in its wake.
Truth works. Nothing can stop it. It is possible only with God, beyond all, knowing all, subject to none, with no needs to press or deficiencies to remedy (cf. Sparkling Life ...Ch. 4). Thus what is excluded through omission, contradiction or confrontation with reason or its need, validity or its requirements, verification and its demands, authority and its attestation, divinity and its characteristics (cf. SMR Ch. 1), this has nothing to do with truth, and is justly by the apostle John (I John 4-5) termed 'the lie' and seen as one or more of its multitudinous sub-varieties.
One of these constraints which must be met, and in which the Bible singularly and uniquely flourishes, without diminution, over time, is the method called scientific method. This, the word of the living God, has more than a jump start here, since as shown in SMR, TMR and many other works on this site, for 3 and one half millenium approximately, the Bible in its prediction, retrodiction, verification, meeting of the demands of validity, entry for its derivation into the domain of deity in the scope of its statements and testability, has stood.
All have been unable to be made to bend.
If then human wisdom, or humanistic ideas, or merely secular
if then these altering ideas are then left with the slight shrug,
indeed, these things are deemed no longer apt and intelligent, sound and
if such intellectual mutations occur to a large extent in a mere 20 years:
It is categorical.
These are different things, many orders of magnitude separating them; and indeed, an illimitable power and wisdom is here objectively seen in contrast with the works of man, which while impressive in part, have no finality, no stability and no endurance in themselves, now most wise, now most mistaken.
This in itself is verification of the word of God; for this is precisely what one would expect; and the expectation is precisely what is found in fact.
Not only then have we found the focus on Christ personally and the Bible propositionally to be the sole rational result of thought, but the sole inhabitant of validity as a logical constraint, and with this, the incomparable superior in any relationship with 'science' seen as secular.
We have in fact even more than this. Not only is Biblical Christian Theism, the testimony of Jesus Christ in Bible, and in life, of truth in this domain, uniquely able to meet the constraints of rationality, of validity, of verification, of incomparable power in precision and depth, but it is both exhaustive in answers and elegant in resolution.
These in turn are precisely features sought for as an ideal in scientific method.
There is in the restoration available from God, Creator, Speaker, Saviour, Self-Expressive in Christ, the entire removal of all the antinomies, antilogies and antitheses in profundity, the very things which have afflicted philosophy for millenia.
Now meaning, rationality, validity, testability, the place of mind and its purpose, the site of matter and its limits, the nature of personality and its exhibition in pathology and in health respectively in coherent depiction, the point and coverage of diversity and the health of love, the basis of love and hatred, truth and fiction in the mind of man, the perversity of much of mankind and the penalty payment involved progressively till the conclusion thunders as on failed adolescents, unwilling to face facts: all this and more is at once resolved. It comes like rain in massive downpour. It is so simple, so far above, and reaches so simply to where we are.
Instead of problems, you have propositions; instead of collisions of ideas, you have precision as in a vast construction, where all the elements not only fit, but have a totality of integral meaning which is vital in mind and harmonious in concept. Indeed, instead of irrationality, by which logic is pierced by the sting-ray of erratic desire, to the heart, you are replete not only with reason's satisfaction, satiation with truth by every test, the meeting of its exactions on the way (cf. SMR, TMR), but with the very height of validity, as reason leads to objective confirmation in the testable Christ and Bible, duly verified to confirm rationality not merely in its use, but in its fruit.
Thus its path is vindicated, as in mining at a site, by its treasure at the end; and the treasure is confirmed by the assay and that by its use. Moreover, if one seeks the substance in KIND, it is there to the uttermost; or if in the minute detail of its discovery, it is there no less. It meets the challenge of perspective and particular alike; it surpasses in the display of its own life, where reason is amazed at the find, and faith is presented with its ground.
Not merely is this so in profile and in detail, but the very eminence of the result under test, both theoretical and practical, matches the unique force which makes it necessary to despise every irrationalism on the way to it. Not only is all explained in principle, but the principle matches personality and explains that in full, to the point of what is almost laughable in its simplicity, while profound in its depths beyond mere observation. Here does validity embrace reason, verification embrace validity, and resolution of all the tussles of philosophy attest truth from its source, while the ease of it and its lively thrust and immovable testimony, show light from its origin in God.
Let us see it in an image, in passing.
It is like seeing clothes flying around a backyard, hundreds of them, keeping their relative positions as they rotate, and never departing. For years, the best of scientists study the problem and every manner of brilliantly foolish concept is bandied around, every style of banter is given almost religious credence, though without rationality; until at last someone notices of all things, a single, a simple fact. He is derided as simplistic, denounced as unprofessional, demanded to cease his lectures.
However his point remains. It is that there has passed unnoticed a Hills Hoist under the clothes; and so pre-occupied were the thinkers that they forgot to be scientists and to check the sight of their eyes and the coherences of their observations, refusing always to consider such a thing, though it positively affronted them by their own methods.
A clothes line! It COULD not be.
Of course, says another, a clothes line! It is upright, equipped with wires, it has arms to keep these from breaking or the contents from wallowing in the wind, it has a stout base and a mechanical basis, and has been designed with purpose to enable human clothing to be rationally controlled.
Impossible! retort the pundits. Simplistic, say the prodigiously profound. But it works! cries the observer. He is instantly dismissed from his post, so that the illicit argumentation, the defilement of scientific method can continue.
He does not realise, they say, that there cannot in principle be something outside the free moving atoms and the clothes to contain these things. There are some things excluded even from observation of results, even when there is also direct testimony for them. This is science.
This is in fact the inebriated fiesta of the scientistic, the graceless posturing of the imprecise, the ludicrous exclusion philosophy of the intellectually bound.
Science! says the newly demoted, dismissed professor. This is not science but a debilitating dynamic of dead philosophy, like corrupted carrion, speciously inserted into your midst. You say what you refuse as a philosophy, nay a religion, and the methods of science are diverted by desire from the very impartial domain of reason.
You KNOW what CANNOT be the answer, by the foibles of self-will in the face of what meets every test and each criterion abundantly. You do this even though what is excluded with profound passion answers everything and is independently verified and uniquely validated. You will not have it, even if and indeed even though it is elegant in simplicity and coherent with all known phases and features of learning. You are in this not scientists at all, but researchers into existentialism, corrupters of truth, impalers of reality. How, he expostulates, do you differ from those who crucified the Lord! It is only the blood...
Thus the exclusive domain of rationality, verification, validity, scientific method with the demands for elegance and cohesion, harmony and mutual co-ordination of all, Biblical Christian Theism: this is not an option. It is a necessity*2. The only option is that of will itself, which can exclude truth as a part of the function made meaningful by its creation through Intelligence and Wisdom (cf. Matthew 13:15).
Will can be wilful! Its diseases mar millions.
Yet love, it does not force; while freedom is not tamed; and what invades these things is mere mis-definition of terms. It is especially in such intemperate passions of philosophy, whether or not invading science as the Panzers invaded Europe, that man finds one more place for his inveterate hostility to God (Romans 1:17ff., Ephesians 4:17ff.). It is this enmity which is not excluded, as masses in and out of professions, proceed with their tampering with the truth, as organic evolutionism and its political spawn, unification of religion snarls and the wistful excesses of existentialism parade their self-contradictory ideas, their anti-verified contentions and their magical thrusts of thought.
Such are the tempestuous substitutes for truth which try to rule this earth (cf. News 121, 122, Biblical Blessings Ch. 2).
When what is verified however, what is uniquely validated, what is harmonious within and in concurrence with every level of thought: when this included, you get quite clearly and indeed categorically what we have.
There is then no need for diversities of divergence; the truth answers for itself. It is only in the flurries and worries of what is manifestly in collision with facts and principles of reason alike, that you get the enormities of rapid, vapid changes of doctrine and view which we have so often attested on this site (cf. Wake Up World! Chs. 4-6, The gods of reason have no go!), and found in the quavering yet assertorial domains of science falsely so-called, in the invasive forces of headlong philosophy, the Hitler of academia, the loved Mao of murder in the domain of truth.
It is when you deny the God of logic, law, liberty and validity, of verification and reason, of harmony without antinomy, cohesive speech without antilogy, meaning without an empty container acting as if full, as you echo in self-contradiction hollowly; it is when you defame or defile with mere force or empty words, the name of the source of beauty that uplifts the soul and of peace that balms the heart, of joy that enlivens the life, of truth that stands before all assault and stands while all else falls, that you fall literally to pieces. It is then that your mental model, your spiritual perspective and your rational vision are all bits and fragments without basis, ground or governance; your confidence in your own speech is as groundless as your life, and your delight in goodness and mercy becomes a disease, to be overcome.
It is so, then, whether you act with the stampede into vile violences, in the battering of bodies as with the misled Islamics, or the desecration of mind as with many of the misled Western academics, or of spirits as with the sects and their humanistic counterparts.
Leaving what explains all, you then become not inexplicable with it, however: you are so only on your own defective model.
Instead, you become guilty of it. Your guilt no guile can possibly overcome; and your judgment will stand, as you fall.
Such is the plight of dismissing the right.
Truth has no exceptions, there are no other options; and the place of mercy has been obtained only at cost, where judgment is borne by God Himself in human form: for such is the actual scope and wonder of the human spirit and mind, in its designed setting, the body, that such payment is needed, so that it might be free. Free however, it is made not to pursue further fallacies of foolishness, but to be what it is, act in its derivative but delightful fold as a child of God; and in this it is so in two ways.
It is firstly by creation; and secondly by adoption, following the payment of the fare, activatable only by faith, and otherwise merely an offer, to bring you home from defilement to better things, worthy of the frame and name of man, unscarred because He was, at the Cross.
Thus there is the pang both of reason, spirit and heart; and with this, without the Creator-Redeemer, there is the pain of degeneration, the only alternative to regeneration.
It extends, this negative verification, in the sense of verification in the domain of what does NOT happen when the truth is despised, even to the ludicrous confusion, collisions and incompatibilities of the various theories of organic evolution as so extensively verified in TMR, SMR and more generally in The gods of naturalism have no go! while philosophy in general teems with the results of a priori dismissal of truth, a negation by word or implication, found so often in its lair, as to become all but constitutional for its pursuit. Not merely does it accelerate with the brakes on, it digs ditches for the wheels, and sets concrete about them.
Rationally, not only does devastation await every other option - and force is not needed, since the opposition in this way self-destructs, just as force in this arena is not used, since it invalidates the reality of the thought in the process by giving practical expression to the concept of meaningless man in meaningless mutual antagonism where thrust replaces truth.
There is then, not only devastation in physical and psychic ways from the obviation by obfuscation of the light of God, the God of all truth; but there is antinomy as well.
The very principles conflict (cf. *1 below, with Repent or Perish Ch. 7, Barbs ... 6 -7, SMR Ch. 10).
you profess goodness and truth in your presentation, to make it stand,
intone integrity, but model iniquity (cf. TMR
you act as men and then reconstruct mankind mentally,
These, the habiliments of creation in certain orderly assignments, have not even possibly anything to do with the REASON for it, or the PURPOSE of it, far less that consigned and assigned to man; far less to any individual man. Billions are spent on the spectacularly irrelevant, and this in turn is but one more attestation of the pathology of man as the Bible depicts it in Ephesians 4:17-19. It is not that he is not intelligent; but intelligence directed where answers do not lie, has no lie for its ball to be struck. It is like golf: your ball is placed in the hollow trunk of a tree, and though you are a great golfer, no green awaits your next stroke, even if permissible, with an axe to recover your now missing and even invisible ball.
More, we see now the reason for the frenzied escapades of Nazism, Communism, militant Islam both now and in its historical invasions of Europe and Africa, using force and violence as weapons to clear the country for Allah's imposed domain, in manners unspeakable, reeking with subjugation, not mere judgment, and seeking to mould through mandates ruinous to the mutuality of man. Now we see the Amins of this world, the Husseins in their Iraq, the rulers of iniquity who MUST dominate, like the perverse Marquis of Sade. Power and glory are with God, and man is so vulnerable without Him, so confused, so meaningless, so pointless precisely like a partially wrecked car, and in his blindness, passion and intemperance, insistences on what neither logic nor fact permits, his accidents mount, as do those of drunken drivers in other roads..
Secular or spiritually wilful man seeks to start the motor and it hums, while the wheels refuse to turn. He seeks help to rebuild, he ignores plans, he despises specifications, he retrospectively makes his own, he does not consider his plight, as one who lacks even sight. Instead of the power of God, he seeks to exalt his own or that of the model he imposes. Without the grace of God, he despises weakness. Without understanding, he plays god! Without goodness, he becomes evil, divorced from the only source of goodness! His mind collapses into irrationality, his deeds become ethically abhorrent, law is mere trifle to him who makes his own and then breaks them. He eats up peoples to impose his will.
What was given for co-operation with God, becomes autonomy on fire; and what was meant for spiritual oversight becomes lost to sight, in the macabre, the mad thrust for blood, in desires to control minds as in the USSR, to kill obstacles, as in that graveyard, Siberia. Man is burning with folly because he has not the water of life.
Having chosen irrationally, wanton idolatry of self, of power, of existential purpose, of this or that component of creation, such as race or callow creeds of rebellion, man moves into assault on truth in various manifestos, red books or other exemplars of unreason. Full of sound and fury, accomplishing nothing, leaving himself and his race a meaning-metre in a model of a meaningless world, while he blares at 'fate' or seeks to control it, even those very forces he refused to recognise: he moves in madness. Contemporary history is its record, and world events increasingly are its pathological file.
It is like the work of an arm, determined to 'succeed' in some 'model' of its worth and significance: an arm that refuses to look at the face, above it!
Metaphysically, logically, epistemologically, in scientific method, ethically, in all ways aesthetic, irenic and ontological, man's every turn in contrariety to the God of the Bible, the face of Jesus Christ the only begotten Son of God, the light of truth in Him: it comes to nothing. It turns into less than nothing, an embroilment in a mixture of comedy and tragedy, of lucidity and murk, to which he directs his travailing heart, while his clever strategies come to nothing likewise, and their gods the same: indeed to much worse. It is rather like Steve Irwin's sting-ray. It is not that it did not contribute to the purpose in hand, but rather it did much worse. If it did however in anything contribute, it is better left unseen.
But tell me, you say, what is this THREEFOLD matter of man being MADE, to which you refer in the title ?
Ah that! You are made in that physical co-ordination of mind, body and spirit: that is creation. You are made, if a Christian, in that restoration to this proper model, which alone meets not only reason, but the psychic realities of life. You are re-made (John 3, Titus 2-3). That is the second generation. The third ? Well, this is 'made' but not a generation type of making. In what way ? In this way.
Ah! you say, my son has now taken his post as an inventor in such and such a company! As to his career, he is made!
That is the third sense of being 'made'. If you have God, you are made! You are where knowledge fits, exclusion zones are now excluded and truth reigns, where peace is plenteous, power is adequate, resource is sufficient, joy is full, character is carved but fashioned in mutuality freely, reality is no more suppressed and the fire of meaning and the thrust of purpose are found to the uttermost: and this, not as mere existential hopes, but as express results of the existence of the living God. What is present in logic, is active in love.
Now you relate as a child, in a kingdom, the kingdom of heaven, which when all the coarse misuse of force is past, will endure (cf. The Kingdom of Heaven Ch. 3). It is eternal and so are you, if you are in Him. You are made!
You are placed where as a human being, you belong, and THEREFORE, have not 'success' or 'prosperity' for a while, as your inheritance, but something far better. It is truth and life which neither falters nor fails, free from corruption and exempt from shame, glowing with goodness and kept by kindness. You are now under the hand of the indomitable Lord Jesus Christ, who so far from being 'lordly', suffered your shame and bore your sin, so that freedom becomes your condition and love your mode.
As for Him, He is unconquerable, force being merely laughable when misused freedom recovers any mode of sanity; resurrection was as indomitable for life*3 as in its prophetic forecast. To abandon life in Him is as wise as a fish striding on its fins, into the land - or imagining itself to do so.
While He does not force faith, a mere contradiction in terms which the religion of submission has so often pushed, as have varieties of heresy which in other modes sought to invade Christianity (cf. SMR pp. 1070-1081), in judgment when the realities have been freely reached, the results will be truly impeachment or peace. In judgment, there is truth without mercy, where goodness has been parried, and faith has tarried. This has been seen from millenia past as in Psalm 1! and of course in Revelation as from the very mouth of Christ (John 3:19,36, Mark 9).
Truth does not bend; but it has stooped: when it is for all that discarded, it merely acts. Judgment is according to truth, whether the truth is that divine mercy has been paid for in His own life, and through the Gospel of Grace received, or without it.
He has done all; and is incomparable; for there is none in heaven or on earth like the Lord, the Father of eternity, the King of Life, the One Manifest in the Flesh, the Corrupter of Corruption, the Donor of Immortality, the Practical Precisionist who became man to show in man the answer to the eternal questions which plague the unbelieving conscience. He has even presented the truth in the simplicities of action! (cf. SMR Chs. 6, 7).
It is for this that we were made. Freedom is necessary for our being able to live and love in the image of God, and to be persons at all; evil is its outcome when misused; being re-made is the condition of return; and when you do, you are made. That, it means you are 'made' for the third time! This time, when you come to it, it lasts forever.
See Ch. 2 above.
What is the Chaff to the Wheat Ch. 4
A Spiritual Potpourri 16 ,
Predestination and Freewill Section I ;
Section III, incl. Part, and End-note 130 ;
News 152 (meaning of , of morals - UN),
News 122 (meaning of self, logic, life, imaginary putations),;
It Bubbles ... Ch. 9; Sparkling Life ... Ch. 7;
Little Things Ch. 5; The Frantic Millenium Ch. 4 (tableau illustrative);
Overflight in Christ Chs. 1, 2 *1,
News 145, BAB 3, 31, Appendix 1;
Three Anzas and One Answer Ch. 6;
see Cartoons SMR p. 32, 422C ; SMR pp. 348ff.; Ch. 5, Ch. 4, Sections I and 3 ,
Things Old and New Ch. 1, TMR Ch.7 ,
Joyful Jottings 14,
Beauty of Holiness Chs. 3, 4, 5, 7, 8.
See *1 above, and:
What is the Chaff to the Wheat Ch. 4; It Bubbles ... Ch. 9, esp. *1A,
Repent or Perish Ch. 7, esp. pp. 152ff., SMR, TMR esp. Chs. 1, 5, 6, 7,
History, Review and Overview Ch. 5, News 152 .
See also or in particular:
Christ, the Wisdom and the Power of God Ch. 6; Barbs ... 29, 19; A Spiritual Potpourri 1-3; SMR 3, Little Things Ch. 5, TMR 9, Epilogue, News 94; The Defining Drama Ch. 4 .
See *1A in Ch. 3 above.