W W W W World Wide Web Witness Inc. Home Page Contents Page for Volume What is New
THAT THE RESURRECTION IS PAST
II Timothy 2:17-18
THE CREATION IS NOT
A PAST RESURRECTION!
In the category of tepid triflers, the statement that the resurrection is already past, as applicable to believers, does not appear; for it is not tepid, nor is it a trifle, but a hideous distortion of the truth. It is however a tortuous twist to it, a tedious quirk. It is this particular error that Paul exposes in decisive terms in II Timothy 2:17-18. It is particularly instructive, because IN TYPE, in matches a common current parallel, in another area. Let's start with the resurrection is past part, first of all.
Imagine that it has already happened, that the resurrection, in which
the incorruptible replaces the corruptible, and
an eternal body, relevant to eternal life after testing, is provided (II Corinthians 5:1ff.), so that
old and new among God's people, are all with the Lord (I Thessalonians 4), where
mortality yields to immortality and
the place prepared in heaven for the children of God yields its title deeds for ever, so that
those many abodes Christ has made ready may be inhabited (John 14:1ff.), where
neither sin nor pain may be (John 14:1ff., Revelation 21:4,8, Isaiah 51:11), where
this flesh which now so often pains, gains replacement in this, that it is put off and
a new overcoating is provided, a new body suitable
the person in all vulnerability is past,
That would be like saying that a starved inhabitant of a warring Sudan is really overfed. It would be worse. It would be beyond the ludicrous, and in shocking taste.
This contemporary orb with its hatred and grievous
its deceit and its twistiness, its tortures and its torments, gives a lordly lather
to the prostrate, and that is far from past.
Is it then a candidate for conception as one where
the resurrection is past already ?
You might as well conceive poverty as wealth, slow death from hideous cancer as invulnerability
or the abundance of the lie as truth!
This is definition by disjunction, affirmation by opposites, cryptic confusion, the appearance of life in speech which is merely the mouthing of mortality, forsaking the fact for the phrase!
Small wonder then that Paul called it being astray concerning the truth (II Timothy 2:18). Even smaller wonder that he calls this sort of thing idle babbling, for such an idea about the resurrection is merely a word of profane vacuity.
There is always, among those who fail to find the fact, who miss the point, a tendency to mythicise when the area is abundant in significance. If the fact was enticing, then the myth may be a sort of atonement for failure, a buffer for mere imagination. When a person does not know the Lord, then the emptiness, resulting in mere mouthing of words without faith, does indeed lead to a sense of loss which may either activate the cynic or entice the verbal magician.
It is like taking off in a light plane: the sky is there (fact), the plane with potential is there (testable as fact), the lift is there (seemingly), and then aloft for a moment before burial, the fling fails. Here is the type of what builds in the air, with fancy or even fantasy, only to be grounded, perhaps for life. Such is a case of a mere adventitious romancing, trusting in man and allying itself with religious foibles. Religion like mathematics can be true or false, and needs testing in the particular case.
Here the factitious faith has no reality, no object, is founded on the believer, a sun flare of his spirit, and there is nothing to lift!
Religious talk then becomes, like its parallel in that case, evolutionism, like naturalism, mere poetising of the natural, so that those lyrical in heart but lifeless in spirit may become mesmerised with metaphorical manipulation, while lost to the practicalities and the realities. It then resembles some older sea captains, whose sea-life is then found only in pictures, whose oceans reside only in their dreams, or again, youths whose only academic success is to be achieved in acts of day-dreaming aspiration.
Poetry can be beautiful, metaphors stimulating to the imagination, when they still have life, and aspirations things of virtue when harnessed to reality.
Yet to allow truth to dribble into platitudes, and aspirations to reside in mere thoughts, to take sailing and make it a mere feeling - these things are the mischievous abasement of the human imagination, an unserene substitute for what works and has worked, instead something with bleary vision blurred as unfocussed eyes might ponder distance.When the word of God is so used, the distorted results become vacuous babbling and profane diversion, as Paul indicates. Here are wanton things to be avoided, like the hand of a murderer, slaying truth as if inadvertently, by custom.
A CONTINUING CREATION IN STRANGE DEFLECTION ?
Paul, in instancing this case of some surreal and current resurrection, mentions it as one case in a surreal sort of thing; and it becomes a foolish binding to what is blinding.
One may then consider another example of this category noted by the apostle. Take then a current pre-occupation of this kind, where biblical creation (cf, SMR pp. 140ff., The gods of naturalism have no go!) is moved from divine fiat to flirtation with fancy, to fuzz, to efforts to dig into dreams and bring up unevidenced and contra-verified babble, that never works, could work, but instead goes beyond a vastly vulnerable religion of hope, worshipping if not itself, then its figments. Items such as Wake Up World! Your Creator is Coming, Chs. 4-6, Ch. 6 above with its references, and Ch. 8, Part III of this present volume, let one see this incidental music of hope turned into a faith without ground, that grinds continually to a stop, for lack of attestation, though the words spill on.
False prophecies are at work at once in the field of para-biblical thought. Thus it might be said by some 'expositors' that God did not of known acts of the present day, or rather, the terminology meaningful for our own time, and applicable because it was a primordial imposition of the same type*1.
Thus God did not define evening and morning in Genesis, in terms of the varying light and darkness of the entire 'day' in order to change the definition in full flow to any imaginable substitute. Coherence of thought did not begin with man, in whom the power for it was deposited, in the mind, as was the evidence of it, in the world as investigable BY MIND. Aptly for him, it is examinable by him, for there is the logos, the creative expression of God, who works in mind and in world to bring a correlation. Thus this underlying logic is at work both mentally and materially, in consort and in combination for intelligibility.
To understand a document which has withstood millenia of assault with a frank simplicity of overcoming, you do not assume a simpleton was at work. Let simpletons be known by their works. God refers from the first, after the creation, and light's institution, to day in these terms. They are our own now. The alternation was present then.
Though the evening-morning sequences are as clear as light, the numerical sequences following in the text of Genesis 1, as simple as a cooking book recipe, the inter-relationships inter-departmental in mutual reference, coming with all possible simplicity, clarity and directness, the whole specified as creation from the first, NOT formation, some blink.
Let them. However the text proceeds with the life array also created and man also specifically created within that sequential format (verses 20,24). Forming, moulding, forging to purpose and intent, in a series of actions, within those great acts of creation, this occurs in clearing operations, mutuality manoeuvres, consequential clearances and the like. This is found in such cases as making the light source that gave the sequence of evening and morning in this impact-result series of divine fiats (v. 3), to be shaped further, after creation's first episode, until it fulfilled ALL the purposes held in mind (vv. 15-16)*2.
Creation however is its theme from the outset, and it moves from what is done to complete action on earth (from v. 2) as phase one of Chapter One, to the parallel action for the heavens (v. 14), as phase two in the same Chapter. It states the case in v. 1 and gives magnificent inputs of creation in 21,27 as noted; and it intensifies the coverage, as in a high-power microscope, in Ch. 2 in terms of man.
On it rushes from "the generations of the heavens and the earth" in Ch. 2 to OTHER generations that proceed in rational sequence amid creation's results, such as the generations of Adam and Noah and the like, later on. These occur for example in Ch. 5 and Ch. 10 as new resultants arrive in this historical series of creation and sequences, proceeding from the first to the last.
Small wonder then that God calls Himself the first and the last (Isaiah 41:4, 44:6). As in I Corinthians 15, the stress then as the biblical testimony mounts to its crescendo in Christ, from the first man to the second man, the second Adam, one as God from God to do what the first mortal man fudged, in rebellious self-exaltation. Unwilling to have a fiasco with usurped reason, misled will and cursed condition as the disruption of His creation, the flouting of His liberty-creation, the ruin of His revelation to man and the fraud victorious, the Creator executed the plan to redeem the situation, man as many as would, since freedom is not foozled just because it is misused, though it becomes more directly now dependent on God: what did God do ? Why He made provision for redemption, foreknowing His own who foreseen before all time were freely His, and secured the residue, the remnant.
While the process of APPLICATION of this redemption, long foretold and beautifully executed amidst the horrors of human sin, borne to secure it where yielded to Him, continues, the work which DID IT, came as Hebrews 9 assures us, ONCE in the end of the age. If it had happened or did so, it would involve Christ suffering OFTEN, but NOW ONCE He has put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself, so securing those who flee to Him for refuge not only from this world's wickedness, but from the enemy, sin, in their own midst (Hebrews 9:22ff., 6:19).
So God came and did it in Person, as He had long said He would (Hosea 13:14, Ezekiel 34), by the method as foretold (Psalm 22) and for the reasons stated (Isaiah 53), at the stated predicted (Christ the Citadel ... Ch. 2).
NOT JIBBING AT PERSPECTIVE
BUT FACING EVIDENCE
From there the history moves through the Acts of the Apostles to the Restoration through the second man, Jesus Christ, the second stark and basic reality for man, and on the end of the Age, which brings termination to the truth-twisting re-writing of the Bible, in terms of its Author's advent, the resurrection of the justified and the residual shame (Revelation 19-20).
Meanwhile in Genesis 2:1-2, the whole bears the name as at the first, of creation, together with the moulding and modelling specified. From outside the created heaven and earth, life and man indicated, there comes a supernal reality: the God who made it all. What then of relationship with Him ?
The forming, then, as announced in relevant sequences consequent to creation, brings the diversified, order-accentuated total. In this is the percipient, man.
This occurs, yet there will be those babbling that there is a conflict between God creating the heaven and the earth, and the formation for multiple purposes, of the sun, moon and stars, in verse 14. In fact, verse 14 proceeds in a precise parallel to the earlier steps involving the terrestrial sphere (Chapter 1, verse 2), namely the celestial one, the heavens, verse by verse. The heaven and the earth are created. Then the earth scene is serially linked in its formation, and double further creation, while the heavens follow next, at verse 14, to receive their share of formation, purpose by purpose. Thus again, there is a series of specific, formative steps.
Thus Matthew Poole was not mistaken in his justly famed commentaries, concerning the creation--formation correlation of the light source, the basis first appearing near the start, and the formation of this formulation coming later, at verse 14. In each of the two series, then, there is attention to purpose-performance criteria in more detail, one for earth, and one for heavens, in general. This is the operational cohesion between initial creation, sufficient for the day, for earth and for heaven, and the following sequential work, to make things most suitable for the creations of life and man, to follow. Intrusion of alien thoughts or imagination is possible, but has nothing to do with interpretation, as with someone adding the word 'not' in a given context about the disposition of assets to someone held in view. It does not take much to create the opposite, or confusion or both in such athletic interpretation exercises.
Indeed, the whole matter in Genesis 1, except for creation additives in vv. 21, 27, depends on the heading that God created the heavens and the earth. THAT is how it started*3. The rest is with these noted intrusions, how it proceeded, in making the platform and then introducing the players, each in their generations, to make history in one, consistent, overall work of definition and development. It moves to the creation of man not this time from nothing of a material kind, for that aspect has already been covered, but from a preceding paraphernalia, the earth, or the dust of the ground, as is later stated. This provides the elements which in fact are created into the threefold unity of mind, matter and spirit which is what man is (cf. Ch. 1, SMR, TMR). So we move from creation in each case, the first that of something without form, and void in darkness, to the articulated splendour of the visible universe, to life, to man's spiritual life as the new entrant.
Thus if in some things, formation features in noted ways, creation is the category expounded from the first, first in the history of the entirety in its birth from the mind and power of God, then in the history of its creation of life and humanity, followed by the creative works, in situ, of the man part. This is set in its own generations, derivative, less spectacular, even gross at times, but in spiritual terms surveyed, analysed and in the same way as was the procedure in Genesis 1, indicated as to the chief points, the pivotal dealings and the divine resultants to the freedoms dowered.
Thus babbling acts to seize the text, just alas as Satan sought to mould the wonder of creation into a malicious misrepresentation of a divine discontent. That was something he himself knew enough about! though far from divine. Thus he acted in diverting Eve from righteousness. Clear instructions denied, invalid thought pursued, something is made out of nothing; but this, it is not creation but desecration, whether of text or the first pair!
It works, to wrench the text from its moorings; but what does it work ? It is as if someone seeks to grasp the reins of the Bible, and belittling the divine guidance intact, the divine method and precision of announcement, do violence to the clear and consistent specifications of the text, though in fact it proceeds without seam, to the first man, first fall, first family, first genealogy, first inundations with the cumulative grounds for it, with no vocabulary change, being clear and not confused. It moves, using the known, in terms expressly set forth and superintended by God*4 in His bringing it to be, and providing vocabulary in normal terms, for the situation from the first to now. HE does not mislead. It is intrusive miscreation which seeks to invest a new line of thought in what is written. Let it. Nothing alters but the babbling as sound amid the souls of man groping through lack of faith in the word of God, in the covering darkness.
To be sure, there are various weaknesses even people, unexpected, which contrary to type may creep in, as with the cigars of Spurgeon, but this is not the place of judgment of people, but of a particular facet of the divine word, that it might be exempt from babbling. Even Noah became on one occasion, intoxicated. Let us then not look at man, but at the word of the living God Himself.
For whatever reason, lapse or languor, empty talk which moves to dissever the individual items from their moulding sequence, divine thrust, show, context, from their configuration, re-inventing a new style, dual definitions such as that of 'day', disruption of flow into history on the same format, configuring itself instead with the babble of scientistic substitutes for science (cf. Secular Myth and Sacred Mystery, TMR Ch. 7, Scientific Method ...) is present like a flood. It is quite as rushingly destructive. With great panache and propaganda, with repetitious impacts in schools, colleges, places of learning, mass media, presumptive applications of vastly devastating kind (as in Communism, a support fantasy*5, or Darwinism, pandering to pride of race to make it the more furious, and the more attractive until pay day comes), we have philosophy masquerading in the realm of science*6.
IF NOT, THERE ARE OTHER THINGS TO FACE,
THAT FOR SOME
WERE BETTER FACELESS
By these means, not for the first or the fifth or the hundredth time in human history, or their inveterate parallels (cf. Spiritual Refreshings ... Ch. 13), many are taken captive, their understanding laid waste, even for a whole phalanx of a tortuously misled generation. It is very old; it is nothing new: it is only the wrapping which is new (cf. SMR Ch. 3). It is in this sort of setting, then, that we find now that some want to make the creation NOT past, or not by fiat, or coming from nothing into nature and from this into thought and liberty, and from that into a science which is based on repetition, as means of understanding precisely what, as creation, is not so! Resurrection past ? sure, let us in another flight of impure imagination have creation NOT past, or stopping though in view is allegedly a universal process. It is just that even on secular grounds, it attests itself as going backwards not forwards in basic designs, as a routine, as found normally in designs over time (cf. Waiting for Wonder, Appendix, Wake Up World! ... Ch. 6.
It is a wonder indeed that man being created, is now being desecrated in mind and spirit, while his own genome as shown in the reference just made, is going backwards, deteriorating to the point of peril as noted by Professor Sandford of Cornell University. It does remind of Toad of Toad Hall in Wind in the Willows, escaping from prison as a washing woman.
Symbolism however does not create, and phrases do not articulate things, only words, while imagination contrary to verification merely makes havoc, which is neither holy nor helpful.
Just then as some in Paul's day wanted to have a resurrection already past, one therefore in manifest collision with that specified both in advance and in Person by Jesus Christ (cf. Luke 24, SMR Ch. 6), one moreover severed from the report of the scriptural basis, so the flame of desire continues like a bushfire.
Instead of the body as witnessed in the resolution of all mysteries and the making physical of all hope, being somehow already present for many, we have the creation short-circuited into a process or a disposable item, like nappies for babes.
As to the resurrection, such triflers make it therefore a thing
of thought, not physical fact,
of aspiration not demonstration, a thing
of feeling, not faith, a work
of meaning, not matrix,
so making Christ a liar, yet a miracle worker indeed, to show individual life from a corpse! so does the parallel work.
Just as Christ is made One rejected for all that, evidence in abeyance, His earlier works dismissed, His raising of Lazarus a matter of disregard, the popular knowledge, approbation and concern for His interminable healings on time all the time, most notable, His fulfilment of prophecy in excruciating detail a throw-away, so now the mythological process fizzles again in a creation thingummy. First fix the Creator, then the creation.
So now we have a something (or some say a nothing), doing strange things for no reason from nowhere, but one now apparently in recess. Yet surely it goes on ? or has it lost its way ? or it emotionally disturbed. Actually, as the Bible states ever so clearly, in the beginning God made it, and in 6 steps finished that side of things. Six days sufficed, just as a few weeks sufficed for Handel in the music of the Messiah. It is like that in creation, time depending on power and resource. God has no limits, so it is forged faster than any work by our greatest geniuses. You have to get used to God: it is a superlative life when you know Him.
God then moved into creation, and shows that it was for good reason, in ways answering to reason, so that it came forth from the power of the Spirit of Him who (just as human thought can create what was not present in matter, but is cast in innovation and combination in glorious fashion) thought it and wrought it, and then taught it.
Now apply the same sort of programmatics to creation, as to the resurrection already case. Why then, disregard reason and evidence altogether. Have a different creation, or none, or somehow from somewhere unspecifiable, have things somehow have law and order and life and organisation, and specification and intricacy of effectual design, and DNA in commands and receptors building ever new infants by procreation on a basis still not fully understood even by observers, and have will and understanding and all that sort of stuff somehow, have it just arrive, like a new sports car from no factory, oh yes, and have analytical mind thrown in, it has to come too.
Have all of it descending, arising, anything at all will do, with no interface or ground, and grind it all out in words, and imagine it happened, and then call it science, and there you are. It is an abomination to scientific method, to logic and to thought. You understand nothing very well now: it can do anything! It is alas with this understanding of this mythical and basic no-cause nothing that man would grace his mind, this often now, and indeed it is nothing at all that he understands in this fiasco, farrago of pretentiously expressed, unobservable logical, absurdity.
Meanwhile, forget the fact that those who defy reality in rejecting Him who made and came to remake, are themselves the habitués and dupes of The Lie (Romans 1, II Thessalonians 2), that they often exclude from jobs those who do NOT mythicise reality, even going so far as to ignore their secondary school results from tertiary acceptance, because creation appeared amid the earlier teaching program! Wonderful, what more could the beast do than sacrifice the kids like this, to the vanity, vanity of vainglory!
ignoring the whole purpose of creation and the available revelation of all meaning and purpose, both experiential and experimental*7, these authoritarians who exclude, they themselves are moving into poetic clouds, not historical. So will there be effort to take this imaginative step, yet further. It is one towards a machination at length to be found in the antichrist, who in such as Mao, Hitler and Stalin has had many more limited precursors. Why worry about ANYTHING! Just be humanistic, worship according to human racism, ignore reality and become yourself in some nubilous way, its very being. One Prime Minister recently - just possibly inadvertently - used God's name in reference to herself, saying it seems, I AM WHO I AM! (cf. Exodus 3:14).
Certainly Mao seemed to think little of a pseudo-divine aura, nor did Stalin fail to find attraction to insights of a kind, by which he might hope to control the laws of nature. It did not work, but it had seemed like an idea!
But all this is but the foothills. The peak awaits with poise and thrust, like a pig grunting as it scourges opposition in lust for filler. The ultimate antichrist - no vast figure, but just a terminal tyrant - awaits, like a tennis player awaiting the conclusion of one match, that he might come for his own!
It is he who seizing internationalisation, is to pose, as man in dreamy delight, the very epitome of blind humanism, as what ? Why he is to pose as IT, as God. He, this fraud, will love the religion that loves him, and cannot stand simple truth based on evidence: for he wishes to rule all, God included. Many have in essence had the same desire; at length the cultural point is reached, ready for the gigantic grab. Europe was not a bad first instalment for a failed exponent, Adolf. It was not humorous then.
Thus at the last it will in this sense, merely be parallel to what happened at the first, when by swaying mankind, the devil sold the swindle that you can't trust your Creator, to man. Whom then will you trust ? Even the cartoon here in Australia, is asking that question!
Trust ? Why of course, you had better trust the empty bag of wind who blows on the froth of faithlessness, so that with incendiary breath it catches fire, and in the heat of some philosophy or other, causes ruin. It has happened, but the power of imposture mounts, and so do the results, as seen in Revelation 19 and I Thessalonians 1 and 2. If you are allergic through sin to God, there is always the drugged alternative, which blinds the eyes (cf. Matthew 13:15ff.).
Despite these barbarisms, which employ and deploy mental and spiritual weapons, there remains individuality, specificity, eternity and personality, localised not less but more, because of the coming loss of pain and suffering. This is the stated intention of the God (John 14:1ff., John 10, I Corinthians 15), who speaks His mind (Amos 4:13, Isaiah 41, 48).
The earth indeed will go, not like poetry, into new experience, but like a student dismissed, a platform taken down: and a new heavens and earth will indeed be created, and that not in vain.
God is the God of creation and practicality, and the glorious gifts of imagination, and all its servants and He, adorns man with liberty to love and to hate, to storm and to abate, to have the power to choose recklessly, or correction. He is made, not to circumvent the word of God, but to enrich the realities of for man unconfused, unabused, recalled for repair and maintenance ? no, rather for regeneration. This is the crucial penultimate work of a creation which may be repaired in renewals, and renewed with washing through Christ's sacrificial atonement (Titus 2-3), because God loves to find the lost, and finding to forgive (Micah 9:18ff., Luke 15). The consummation comes like the glory of Spring, but this time, an arising that sheds mortality itself, for immortality with Him who made life, and understands
A Spiritual Potpourri Ch. 9,
Possess Your Possessions Ch. 3, esp. Epilogue, *1 which refers both to background in terms of time and reference to Dr Sarfati's summary on the Hebrew relative to the term 'day'.
See Let God be God Ch. 12, esp. as marked. This with the above (*1) gives a broad treatment.
See Gracious Goodness and the World in Disorder Ch. 6.
See I Corinthians 2:9-13, where the SUBSTANCE is shown and the WORDING provided as the Lord teaches, in the turning of inspiration into the formal revelation of the Bible. As with all of God's dealings, it is HE and not some surmise or poetry or philosophic fancy, who works. If He causes writing, He ensures it is His own intent that is expressed; if creation, it is the same, if clarity (Proverbs 8:8) again, as desired, it is done. It is necessary for pagan unbelief to grow used to the very concept of Him who created the highly technical writing, incomparable in finesse, in our DNA, as likewise the power for its orders to be implemented, so providing the very stuff on which they work in order to ensure the purpose is not frustrated (DNA would-be ditches, futile follies such as are never found, if its directions had no impact!). It is He to whom to look in order to recognise what is unique in the earth, such as mind, such as power to create, such as will, such as spirit, for His work is not penetrable by idle imagination. It is He who in His own word has provided us with such results, adorned with precise prophecy in writing, just as with precise functions, in the DNA with other commands and procedures, and even information about information all part of its systematic domain.
Grow used to God ? There is first need for repentance and reconciliation, the provision He has already made for the sins already made, that they might be met in justice, through mercy. God commands all men everywhere to repent and to receive His resolution (Acts 17:31,Luke 13, John 6:50ff., John 1:12-14).
Until this is done, the issues can be blotted from the unreceptive mind by the simple fact that it is blinded, bonded to unbelief, rather like one attending a concert, remarking in later aesthetic thought, that 'music means nothing to me.' If you do this sort of thing about our own being and creation, is it any wonder that at long last, you will face the music. It is better far to listen, check, consider, and noting the verifications, validations and impact, heed (cf. SMR, TMR, Deity and Design... LIGHT DWELLS WITH THE LORD'S CHRIST, WHO ANSWERS RIDDLES AND WHERE HE IS, DARKNESS DEPARTS), receive the gift of eternal life by grace. After, you made no contribution to your birth in the first place. So it is in the second place (Ephesians 2:1-12, Romans 5:15-17). .
*5 Communism: see the following for example.
Tender Times for Timely Truth
The Grating Grandeur ... Ch. 2; SMR pp. 925ff., 971-972;
Beauty for Ashes Ch. 6 (and Hong Kong, and the movement of nations in the last century a concern),
with News 98, News 37.
Aviary of Idolatry, Delusive Drift or Divine Dynamic Ch. 5,
News 37. 44, 69, 97 (the exploiters, the fanciful,
the Communists, the de-godders and the realities), 98,
News 150 - Taiwan,
The Grating Grandeur and Aggrandisement of Man,
and the Meekness of the Majestic Messiah Ch. 2
Beauty for Ashes
Hong Kong, and the movement
of nations in the last century a concern),
Tender Times for Timely Truth
SMR pp. 925ff., 971-972;
Beauty of Holiness
(war and force, rising downwards, Tiananmen and truth),
Ch. 4 (liberty, Tiananmen, worship and its direction in time, its terms and code of truth); History, Review and Overview Ch. 1,
Impossible to Men, Open to God Ch. 5
See also Lord of Life Ch. 8.
The Splendour of the Biblical Coverage of the Meaning and Matrix of Man Ch. 3
1) Tedious Torturers ... Ch. 6.
2) Op. cit. Ch. 1
3) Secular Myths and Sacred Truth, esp. Ch. 3
4) The gods of naturalism have no go!